Three-dimensional printing process: reproduction of three-dimensional splendor (in)

2. Platemaking and printing process

Due to the fineness of the stereo image pixels and the magnification of the lenticular lens grating, the number of plate-making screen lines must be 120 lines/cm or more. Three-dimensional printing and ordinary color printing plus the same angle, and blue and black version to use the same mesh angle. In addition, three-dimensional prints with different grid pitches must have different combinations of yellow, magenta, cyan, and black grid lines to avoid interference fringes. The screen angle commonly used by printing manufacturers is:

0.6 pitch / cm, 100 lines / cm color separation, the screen angle is Y81, M36, C66, K66;

0.44 pitch / cm, 58 lines / cm color separation, the screen angle is Y50, M20, C65, K65;

0.31 pitch / cm, 81 lines / cm color separation, the screen angle is Y66, M22, C51, K51.

Since the three-dimensional manuscript is composed of a closely-arranged pixel, after the plate-making and printing, the lenticular plate is compounded. Therefore, besides the moiré formed between the screens, the network line angle must be considered. The screen angle forms a moiré pattern formed by the pixel lines and the lenticular lines. For example, three-dimensional printing should not choose 0 degrees, because the horizontal network line is the most obvious, and 0 degrees and the pixel line, cylindrical lens line orthogonality, interfere with the clarity and depth of the image. The three-dimensional printing in the blue and black version of the same screen angle is determined by its own characteristics. Due to the fact that the three-dimensional prints are mostly compounded with plastic plates, the lenticular plates mostly have a certain gray scale, and the three-dimensional printing uses a very fine 300-line screen, which only needs to be 8.5 to 9 or 9 when printing. Into the point, otherwise it is easy to paste version when printing, so you need to increase the amount of dark area tone, in order to achieve 9 to 9.5 into the effect. Therefore, the three-dimensional printing is more dense than the solid color density of the four-color printing on the plane. Generally:

Offset offset printing: Y: 1 to 1.1, M: 1.4 to 1.5, C: 1.5 to 1.6

Stereoscopic printing: Y: 1.33 to 1.35, M: 1.31 to 1.33, C: 2

If the three-color printing ink is close to neutral gray after overprinting, in order to reduce the error caused by the fourth overprint, it is not necessary to print the black version again, and the black version can be taken the same angle as the cyan version so as to be flexible. In the small area even when the sun, due to the temperature of the exposure light source will cause the film to shrink, resulting in changes in the pitch of the front and rear width, affecting the accuracy of the print position, so the separation of the separation film made into the whole film for the best print. When copying the positive image, it is necessary to make a line that is equal in width and pitch between the negative film and the photosensitive film. The printing plate should be printed with a PS plate with a better level of expression. The printing method selected for the three-dimensional printing shall ensure that the three-dimensionality is not lost due to printing, the overprinting accuracy is good, and the requirements for mass printing are appropriate. Lithographic Offset: Platemaking, printing overlay accuracy, resistance to printing force are all better, the printed product has better stereoscopic effect, plate making stability, and mass production. Photogravure: The precision of platemaking and printing overprinting is not very good, the printing force is good, and the printed product has a good three-dimensional effect, but the multicolor printing effect is not good. Mu Luo version: The plate-making modulation is not stable, the printing-resistant force is low, the printing accuracy of printed products is better, and the three-dimensional feeling is better, but it is not suitable for mass production. The quality of three-dimensional printing is good and has obvious influence on the visual effect of three-dimensional pictures. Due to the focus and obstruction of the grating, the network cable is required to be clear and overprinting is accurate. The trapping error must not exceed 0.02 mm. It is required that the ink should not be faded. The use of high-precision four-color printer printing, gauge line must meet strictly, and the workshop must have constant temperature and humidity conditions. With regard to the above comparison of conditions, stereographs are generally used for offset printing. The stereoscopic negative film taken was separated by electronic color separation or direct screening.

3. Stereoscopic printing materials and technologies

(1) Paper. Paper for printing needs to be compact, smooth, smooth, and less stretchable; usually coated paper or cardboard is used. (2) grating sheet material. There are mainly rigid plastic lenticular sheets and soft plastic steric lenticular sheets. Hard plastic three-dimensional lenticular sheet is made of polystyrene raw material through injection molding into convex and concave lenticular lens grating. Polystyrene is a colorless, transparent, refractive index of 1.59 to 1.6, no ductility, flammable. Because of this high refractive index it gives it a good sheen. The chemical properties of polystyrene are resistant to certain mineral oils, organic acids, bases, salts, lower alcohols and aqueous solutions. In some cases, the degree of erosion of polystyrene by chemical agents can be reduced by annealing, stress relieving, and other measures. The soft plastic steric lenticular sheet is a soft plastic steric three-dimensional lenticular sheet that is made of a polyvinyl chloride sheet base pressed by a metal grating roller or a grating plate. Polyvinyl chloride is a polymer compound formed by the polymerization of chlorinated olefins and is difficult to burn. PVC can be made into a colorless, transparent and glossy film, and can produce various softness films according to the plasticizer content. This material is also characterized by pulse heat sealing, high frequency heat sealing, and adhesion. The chemical properties of polyvinyl chloride have good chemical resistance, but poor thermal stability and lightfastness.

(2) Ink. At present, some ink manufacturers can provide inks and additives for three-dimensional printing, and some manufacturers have developed a new ink production line. However, it should be noted that stereoscopic printing inks are not foaming inks. In fact, any visible degree of foaming affects sharpness and three-dimensional effects. For three-dimensional three-dimensional printing inks, the curing temperature is within the curing range of the standard plastic ink (149 to 171° C.), but it must be increased to a curing temperature suitable for super-thick ink layers. If the ink layer is completely cured, the three-dimensional ink will have the same good elasticity as the standard plastic ink. Although 3D printing inks are not yet common, this ink is very different from the thicker plastic ink layer that people commonly use. If it is done correctly, the three-dimensional printed image will have a distinctly fine layer and a clear edge. The printed edge will be raised vertically from the surface of the fabric and the ink wall will be smooth. Although the ink is thick and the stencil is thick, 3D printing can still print exhilarating fine-grained and screened prints.

(3) Adhesives. The role of the adhesive is to enable the print and the lenticular sheet to be firmly bonded together and to protect the ink layer from discoloration at high temperatures.

(4) Problems to pay attention to in three-dimensional printing

Single-lens or multi-lens cameras are used for photography, which requires the camera to have high accuracy and avoid errors due to vibration. And accurately adjust the focal length, angle and raster data movement distance; improve the precision of plate-making color separation and copying; the 300-line network requirements are solid and the scenery images are kept at a rich level; Typographical printing must be carried out according to plan and avoid production. Paper expansion and contraction, resulting in inaccurate overprinting; grating film pitch and angle have higher accuracy, composite molding requires accurate positioning. Hard plastic and soft plastic transparency performance is better.

(to be continued)

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